After the introduction of implantology, the approaches for implant designing and using them for dental treatment have changed and improved a lot. There are multiple methods using which you can place an implant, but some of the practices are still the same.
One such niche is preparing the implant site using dental bone profiling drills and implementing different protocols. To provide you with more clarity on the same, we will explore various biological effects of the traditional bone drilling process. So, let’s get started.
Effect of High-Speed Drilling on Implant Site Viability
Irrespective of the surgeon’s skill or precision level, drilling the bones will always cause some sort of damage to the tissue. Moreover, osteocyte cells are also impacted. They are responsible for the formation of newer bones and osseointegration.
The main factor behind the damage is the operation of bone profiling drills at a fast pace. The heat generated due to friction is harmful to the bone cells. It kills surrounding tissue, which ultimately leads to bone resorption around the area. Usually, it happens at the implant site. All in all, the implant stability is compromised due to high heat generation.
The area around the implant position which gets damaged due to high-speed drilling is known as the “Zone of Death”. Due to the damage, the minerals from the bone are released, and getting good site viability becomes hard.
So, now let’s check out how the death of the tissues and cells can be minimized.
Does Increasing The Rate of Irrigation Improve Results?
Saline irrigation is one of the key techniques used during the drilling process, such as implant osteotomy drills, for counterbalancing the heat and controlling the temperature.
So, can you achieve better results just by increasing the rate of saline irrigation? Not Really.
Because the process of irrigation has its disadvantages. See, the procedure of bone drilling generated osseous coagulum and bone chips. The osseous coagulum is a blend of bone cells, blood, and other similar materials. If they are left in their original state, the process of formation of new bones is started. This way, healing of the bone is initiated.
But wait, there is a catch.
When copious irrigation is performed, the osseous coagulum and bone chips are removed from the surface. So, instead of healing, the death of bone cells is initiated. Even if you try to control the damage by retrieving the material, it is not effective due to a decrease in osteogenic ability. Controlling the death of the tissue is essential along with the presence of sufficient bone chips, for effective healing.
What Happens When You Use The Drill At A Low Speed?
Now, you might be thinking of an obvious potential solution, which is operating the drill at a lower speed. Because, if the speed is low, the friction will minimize. Consequently, less heat will be produced and the tissue will not burn and die. So, it is better to use the drill at a comparatively lower RPM, right? Wrong!
Bone profiling drills and implant osteotomy drills should be operated at high speeds to serve their primary purpose, which is piercing through the bone and creating a cavity. Otherwise, if the speed is not high, enough thrust force can’t be collected, which is essential for the bit to advance through the bone. Moreover, the safety and effectiveness of the procedure are also compromised.
The Solution Lies in The Texture & Shape of The Drill
It is evident after going through the above information that high-speed drilling reducing the speed is not a feasible solution. But, there is an effective tweak, which is using a drill with a different shape.
As you know, the surface of the standard drill is smooth and only the tip is pointed. A better practice is to use a textured drill, whose surface has small sharp structures on the surface. This drill can also be operated at a comparatively lower speed without the requirement for saline integration. Consequently, heat production is also reduced.
It drills the bone in such a manner that the count of bone chips is increased when the instrument is reversed and the drill comes out of the bone. Consequently, the healing process is automatically boosted. Last but not least, patients have a better experience during dental surgeries. The reason behind this is decreased noise and vibration, which are common problems during a procedure.
After going through the above points, it is clear that dental bone profiling drills are meant to be operated at a higher speed. But, the heat’s adverse effects on the bone tissues and cells can be minimized with the help of the right-shaped drills. It makes dental procedures easy for both surgeon and patient. The surgeons can drill more easily and precisely. While, the patients have a less traumatic experience, and their recovery is also fast.